For the off-season athlete there is no anabolic steroid more important or beneficial than testosterone. High levels of testosterone will promote significant increases in lean muscle mass and strength. This is assuming that the individual is consuming adequate calories. Compounds like Testosterone Propionate are not magical, you will still need to feed your body enough calories. During an off-season period of growth, this means total caloric intake will need to be slightly above maintenance. This will, unfortunately, promote body fat gain. However, the key to a successful off-season is gaining lean tissue while minimizing body fat gain to the fullest extent possible. By supplementing with Testosterone Propionate you will be able to achieve this more efficiently. High testosterone levels will promote a stronger metabolic rate. This is not a license to eat like there’s no end in sight, but you should be able to make better use of your calories.
Another is lack of breast milk, and a third is the increased use of antibiotics. O'Toole says that one study suggests that repeated use of antibiotics tips the microbiota towards one that promotes obesity. In fact there are many studies around the globe that are still in their infancy but which point up connections between the microbiota and diseases and complaints as diverse as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, type-two diabetes, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, autism, depression, cardiovascular disease and colon cancer.
A strictly anaerobic, propionate-producing bacterial strain (WB4 T ) isolated from rice plant residue in anoxic rice-field soil in Japan was characterized phenotypically and phylogenetically. Cells were Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short rods. The strain utilized various sugars and produced propionate and acetate as major fermentation products with a small amount of succinate. The optimum growth temperature was 30 °C. Oxidase, catalase and nitrate-reducing activities were negative. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C 15 : 0 , C 15 : 0 and anteiso-C 17 : 0 3-OH. Menaquinone MK-8(H 4 ) was the major respiratory quinone. The genomic DNA G+C content was 39·3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the strain in the phylum ‘ Bacteroidetes ’. The closest relative to strain WB4 T was an environmental clone from water contaminated with equine manure (sequence similarity of 99·7 %) and the strain formed a distinct cluster with other environmental clones mainly from freshwater sediments. The closest recognized species were members of the genus Dysgonomonas , with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 90·9–89·8 %. Bacteroides merdae was the next closest recognized species (similarity of 88·7 % to the type strain). Given that the ecological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain WB4 T were different from those of any related species, a new genus and species Paludibacter propionicigenes gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate it. The type strain is WB4 T (=JCM 13257 T =DSM 17365 T ).