Im an NHS professional and i can tell you now alcohol swabs alone do not kill off all bacteria present on the skin, in part mainly due to resistancies of new, stronger strains. In NHS establishments we now use chlorhexidine AND alcohol based swabs to remove all bacteria present from the surface of the skin before injecting any drug, even when sampling blood we must prepare the skin with these new and far more effective swabs. In clinical trials the chemicals seem to work far more effectively together than alone. Site preparation is taken very seriously to prevent any possibility of infection, and re-using a needle is a disciplinary offence, basically its a sure fire way to get an infection and possibly something more serious. Back to the original post, excellent although im not sure advocating mini self operations such as aspirations is a good idea but i guess its up to the individual. GP or A&E would be my preference every time. Just remember the three signs of infection...heat, pain and swelling. All three together are a % guarantee that there is an infection process going on which will more than likely need antiobitic therapy and in worse cases incision and drainage by a professional under aseptic technique. Prepare the site properly with an adequate solution, rotate the site frequently, re sheath the needle after drawing up the solution and NEVER re -use a needle. Follow these simple steps as we do in the NHS and you will dramatically reduce your risk of a more serious pain in the ass.